Men & Cancer
It’s of great concern that the number of men being diagnosed with late stage cancer is on the rise.
Knowledge is power and can change the lives of men drastically if they are aware of early warning signs and symptoms of male cancers.
Men need to be pro-active about their health and should recognise warning signs. We encourage monthly testicular self-examinations, annual medical check-ups and cancer screening for early detection, as symptoms don’t always present until cancer has spread. Men also need to lead a healthy, balanced lifestyle, cutting out lifestyle factors that increase their cancer risk.
We urge men and male cancer Survivors to encourage one another to invest in their health and to ask their doctor for advice on specific cancer screening tests relevant to their age, medical and family history.
Contact your local CANSA Care Centre for health awareness materials and arrange for screening for prostate, colorectal or skin cancer, or ask about scheduled visits to provide screening via our MANVan and Mobile Health Clinics, if you live in a remote area.
We provide a counselling service dedicated to providing advice to cancer Survivors. Speak to a counsellor at your local CANSA Care Centre. Phone our Toll Free Call Centre on 0800 22 6622, or email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. You can also join our Champions of Hope Facebook Group for cancer Survivors & chat to peers who are facing similar challenges.
Find general information regarding cancer, cancer types, treatment, support and risk reduction and information regarding male cancers prevalent in South Africa below.
Top Five Cancers Affecting SA Men:
The five leading types of cancer that indiscriminately afflict men in South Africa are:
Prostate, Colorectal, Lung, Kaposi Sarcoma and Bladder Cancer
1. Prostate Cancer:
The lifetime risk for Prostate Cancer in men in South Africa, is 1 in 19, according to the 2014 National Cancer Registry.
Men need to go for simple screening tests to detect Prostate Cancer (see guidelines below). Screening results in early detection, enabling more effective treatment and a better chance of recovery:
- Routine Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing, annually, from age 40 for all men at high risk of prostate cancer. This includes those men with more than one first-degree relative who had prostate cancer at an early age (younger than 65 years)
- Routine Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing, annually, as from age 45 for all males who are at risk of prostate cancer. This includes men who have a first-degree relative (father, brother, or son) diagnosed with prostate cancer at an early age (younger than 65 years)
- Routine Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing, at least once every two (2) years, for all males from age 50
Although most enlargements of the prostate are not cancerous, regular screening is essential.
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Test
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by both cancerous (malignant) and non-cancerous (benign) prostate tissue. High PSA levels may indicate inflammation of the prostate or even cancer.
A blood test or finger prick test can establish if PSA levels are raised. PSA tests are available at most CANSA Care Centres across the country and via CANSA’s Mobile Health Clinics and Hollard MANVan.
- 2015 / 16: 3 954 tests done; 120 abnormalities detected
- 2016 / 17: 7 924 tests done; 135 abnormalities detected
- 2017 / 2018: 1 751 tests done; 85 abnormalities detected
- 2018 / 2019: 4 018 tests done; 191 abnormalities detected
TOTAL over the period 2015 – 2019: 17 647 tests done; 531 abnormalities detected
Digitial Rectal Exam
Men aged 50 (40 – 45 for those at high risk, such as men with a family history of Prostate Cancer) should be examined annually.
A doctor examines the prostate through the rectum to check for any prostate lumps or abnormalities.
Learn more about Prostate Cancer, symptoms, screening and reducing risk:
- Fact Sheet: Prostate Cancer (NCR 2014)
- Leaflet: What is Your Risk for Prostate Cancer
- What is Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) & How to Interpret Test Results
- CANSA’s Protocol for Prostate Specific Antigen Screening Test
- Role of PSA Screening on Prostate Cancer Diagnosis & Treatment
- Bookmark: CANSA Men’s Health Awareness
2. Colorectal Cancer
Colorectal cancer (cancer of the colon or rectum), is the second most common cancer and it is estimated that 1 in 79 SA men will develop colorectal cancer according to the NCR 2014. In early stages symptoms are not present, however when they do occur, they include a change in bowel habits, rectal bleeding, stomach pain, weakness, and weight loss.
CANSA encourages early detection and screening by means of a colonoscopy, starting at age 50 and repeated every 10 years depending on the individual’s risk factors. Faecal occult blood tests are offered at most CANSA Care Centres that look for microscopic blood in the faeces, which may be a sign of a growth, inflammation or bleeding in the digestive system.
- Fact Sheet: Colorectal Cancer (NCR 2014)
- Nutritional Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Patients
3. Lung Cancer
Coming in third is lung cancer with estimates that 1 in 80 SA men will develop lung cancer, according to the NCR 2014. When symptoms appear, they include shortness of breath, cough, a change in sputum, chest pain, noisy breathing, hoarseness, and coughing up blood. Smoking accounts for the majority of preventable lung cancers, and the best way to prevent the disease is to not use tobacco products and avoid second-hand smoke. #NoTobacco
- Fact Sheet: Lung Cancer (NCR 2014)
4. Kaposi Sarcoma
The most common AIDS-related cancer world-wide, is Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) which is the fourth most prevalent cancer in South African men according to the NCR 2014. Approximately 1 in 320 South African males are affected with KS which sees patches of abnormal tissue grow under the skin, in the lining of the mouth, nose, throat or in other organs. About one-third of people with classic KS develop another cancer which can be fatal.
- Fact Sheet: Kaposi Sarcoma (NCR 2014)
5. Bladder Cancer
And the fifth most common cancer in South African men is bladder cancer affecting 1 in 152 men, according to the NCR 2014. The largest risk factor that can be avoided is smoking, which doubles the chance of bladder cancer. No screening is available, however blood in the urine, a change in urine colour, the need to go frequently and burning pain are some of the symptoms.
- Fact Sheet: Bladder Cancer (NCR 2014)
The lifetime risk for Testicular Cancer in men in South Africa, is 1 in 1 798, according to the 2014 National Cancer Registry.
Most Testicular Cancers can be detected early – a lump or swelling may be the first sign that a medical practitioner should be consulted.
Reduce Risk Through Self-Examination
It’s important for young men to start testicular self-examinations soon after puberty.
Men from the age 15 to 49 years need to examine their testicles each month, preferably after a bath or shower, to feel for any pea-sized lumps that could indicate Testicular Cancer.
Learn more about Testicular Cancer, symptoms, screening, self-examination and reducing risk:
- Fact Sheet: Testicular Cancer (NCR 2014)
- Leaflet: Self-examination & FAQs
- How to do a Testicular Self-Examination: English | Afrikaans
- Bookmark: CANSA Men’s Health Awareness
- Endodermal Sinus Tumour of the Testicles Fact Sheet (NCR 2012 n/a)
- Testicular Cancer & Male Fertility Fact Sheet
Testi-monials to Encourage Men to Talk Balls – for their Health
Testi-monials, a campaign created by FCB Cape Town for CANSA which is setting out to remove the awkwardness around talking about testicular cancer, and drive awareness about how important it is that men not only talk balls but take care of them too.
The campaign features testicles giving their own testi-monials about cancer and how they have been personally affected. They will give advice on how to self-examine and help detect signs and symptoms. Read more…
Testi-monials will live on www.testi-monials.co.za where people can ask the campaign’s testi-ambassador their health related questions, including:
- How is testicular cancer diagnosed?
- What are the treatments for testicular cancer?
- What are the symptoms of testicular cancer?
- And many other pertinent questions relating to testicular cancer…
The testi-ambassador will give it to you straight, so there’s no need to beat around the bush.
In June 2016 the CANSA Testi-monial video won a Silver Cannes Lions Award and in August, the video won three local Loerie Awards. The Loeries are awards granted locally for local advertising excellence in South Africa.
Loeries were awarded in the following categories:
- Gold Loerie: Digital & Interactive – Social Media
- Craft Gold Loerie: Digital Crafts – Animation
- Silver Loerie: Digital & Interactive – Microsite
Other Cancers Affecting Men:
It’s also important to know about other cancers affecting men such as HPV related cancers including penile and anal cancer. More than 30 to 40 types of HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital area, which in some cases, can result in cancer.
- Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans (BXO) – can lead to Penile Cancer
- Bathroom Frequency in Men (Causes)
- Botox Use by Cancer Survivors
- Bowenoid Papulosis – Squamous Cell Carcinoma in situ (genitalia)
- Erectile Dysfunction & Cancer Treatment
- Human Papilloma Virus Infection & Cancer – get to know the facts & about the vaccine
- Melanotan II – CANSA Issues Warning
- Penile Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PeIN) – linked to penile cancer
- Position Statement & Fact Sheet Vaccines & Vaccination
- Scalp Cooling to Minimise Hair Loss
Read Buddies for Life online lifestyle publication, “Oncology Buddies” for cancer Survivors.
DAREdevil in 2019
Sign Up for the 2019 Hollard DAREdevil Run
Friday 15th March 2019 (JHB only)
Woza bozza! Siyabangena nge-Speedo, majita.
We DARE You to take part:
Has Cancer Touched Your Life?
Cancer affects one in four South Africans, through diagnosis of family, friends, colleagues or self.
We want you to know that you are not alone and that we would like to support you and your loved ones, regardless of how cancer has touched your life.
Find info & online resources to help you fight cancer and please read more about CANSA’s Holistic Care & Support which is offered at our CANSA Care Centres countrywide.